For quantitative research , it is a presentation of the numerical results and data, whereas for qualitative research it should be a broader discussion of trends, without going into too much detail. For research generating a lot of results , then it is better to include tables or graphs of the analyzed data and leave the raw data in the appendix, so that a researcher can follow up and check your calculations.
A commentary is essential to linking the results together, rather than just displaying isolated and unconnected charts and figures.
It can be quite difficult to find a good balance between the results and the discussion section, because some findings, especially in a quantitative or descriptive experiment , will fall into a grey area. Try to avoid repeating yourself too often. It is best to try to find a middle path, where you give a general overview of the data and then expand on it in the discussion - you should try to keep your own opinions and interpretations out of the results section, saving that for the discussion later on.
This is where you elaborate on your findings, and explain what you found, adding your own personal interpretations. Ideally, you should link the discussion back to the introduction, addressing each point individually.
In keeping with the hourglass principle, you can expand on the topic later in the conclusion. The conclusion is where you build on your discussion and try to relate your findings to other research and to the world at large. In a short research paper, it may be a paragraph or two, or even a few lines. In a dissertation, it may well be the most important part of the entire paper - not only does it describe the results and discussion in detail, it emphasizes the importance of the results in the field, and ties it in with the previous research.
Some research papers require a recommendations section, postulating the further directions of the research, as well as highlighting how any flaws affected the results. In this case, you should suggest any improvements that could be made to the research design. No paper is complete without a reference list , documenting all the sources that you used for your research.
This should be laid out according to APA , MLA or other specified format, allowing any interested researcher to follow up on the research. One habit that is becoming more common, especially with online papers, is to include a reference to your own paper on the final page. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Jun 5, Parts of a Research Paper. Retrieved Sep 14, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.
You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution. Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:.
It is an evaluation of previous research on your topic, where you show that there is a gap in the knowledge that your research will attempt to fill. The key word here is evaluation. Often the easiest part of the thesis to write. Outlines which method you chose and why your methodology ; what, when, where, how and why you did what you did to get your results. Outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses, presented in figures and in written text. Results contain the facts of your research.
Often you will include a brief comment on the significance of key results, with the expectation that more generalised comments about results will be made in the Discussion section. Sometimes Results and Discussion are combined: The Discussion should also relate your specific results to previous research or theory.
You should point out what the limitations were of your study, and note any questions that remain unanswered. Check with your supervisor. See our theses in discussion page for more information or try these exercises.
Thesis Structure Thesis Structure Help Thesis Title Page. Surprisingly, the thesis title page is always of great importance, though it doesn’t contain much information. The thing is that the level of accuracy with which you write this single page reflects you knowledge of standard thesis structure and of your attention to details.
I. Thesis structure Title Page Title (including subtitle), author, institution, department, date of delivery, research mentor(s) and advisor, their instututions and email adresses Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify. In writing the discussion session.
By "best structure," we mean the structure that best supports the argument that you intend to make. When you are outlining a paper, you'll have many options for your organization. An effective essay requires a strong thesis statement -- a declaration of the writer's opinion on a given topic or the central message of the essay in one sentence. A thesis must be sound because it is the backbone of an essay. The rest of the essay expands upon and proves the thesis statement.
It is the final part of your thesis and includes format and types of the documents, papers and forms which you used to collect the data during study. Final Thoughts On Thesis Structure. Developing A Thesis Think of yourself as a member of a jury, listening to a lawyer who is presenting an opening argument. You'll want to know very soon whether the lawyer believes the accused to be guilty or not guilty, and how the lawyer plans to convince you.