This paper mainly discusses these major forms of diabetes considering their causes and consequences. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, body cells fail to produce insulin due to a compromised immune system causing damage to the cells where production of insulin takes place.
The cause and prevention of type 1 diabetes are not particularly known; however, it is suspected to be a consequence of certain genetic factors. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is low production of insulin by the body cells or the body does not effectively make use of the produced insulin. The cause and cure of type 2 diabetes remains unknown; however, genetic factors and manner of living take part in its causes, and watching blood sugar level can control the disease.
Gestational diabetes happens when there is a development of high blood sugar level in pregnant women not previously diagnosed of diabetes. For mothers who had gestational diabetes during their first pregnancy, the probability that it will occur in subsequent pregnancies is approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, some patients may subsequently develop type 2 diabetes. After pregnancy, diabetes type 1 or 2 may occur and will require obligatory treatment. The role of genetic factors as a cause of diabetes has been proven definitively.
This is the main etiological factor for diabetes. IDDM is considered to be a polygenic disease which is based on at least two of the mutant genes in diabetic chromosome 6. They are associated with the HLA system D-locus , which determines the individual, genetically determined response of the body and B cells to various antigens. The hypothesis of polygenic inheritance of IDDM suggests that diabetes is caused from two mutant genes or two groups of genes that have a recessive inherited predisposition to autoimmune lesions of the insular apparatus or increased sensitivity of B cells to viral antigens or attenuated antiviral immunity.
Genetic susceptibility is linked with particular genes of HLA systems, which are considered markers of such a predisposition.
Patients with a genetic predisposition to IDDM have an altered response to environmental factors. They have weakened antiviral immunity, and they are extremely susceptible to cytotoxic damage to the B cells by viruses and chemical agents. Viral infection may be a factor that provokes the development of IDDM. The most common occurrence of IDDM clinically is preceded by the following viral infections: The role of viral infection is confirmed by seasonality in the incidence of IDDM development often, the first diagnosed cases of IDDM among children occur in autumn and winter months, with a peak incidence in October and January , the detection of high titers of antibodies to the virus in the blood of patients with IDDM, and the detection by immunofluorescent methods for studying viral particles in the islets of Langerhans in people who have died of IDDM.
The role of viral infections in the development of IDDM is confirmed in experimental studies. Viral infections among individuals with a genetic predisposition to IDDM are involved in the development of the disease as follows:. First stage — a genetic predisposition, due to the presence of certain antigens in the HLA system, as well as genes of chromosomes 11 and Second stage — the initiation of the autoimmune process in islands of B cells influenced with viruses, cytotoxic agents and any other unknown factors.
A crucial point in this step is the expression of B cells HLA-DR-antigen and glutamic acid, and therefore, they become autoantigens that cause the development of autoimmune response reactions. Third stage — the stage of the active immunological process with formation of antibodies to B cells, insulin and autoimmune insulitis development. Fourth stage — the progressive reduction of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose 1-phase secretion of insulin. Fifth stage — clinical diabetes the manifestation of diabetes.
Its length depends on the severity and degree of B cell damage, their ability to regenerate, and the level of residual insulin secretion, as well as the severity and frequency of related viral infections.
Sixth stage — the complete destruction of b-cells, and a complete lack of insulin secretion and C-peptide. Clinical signs of diabetes form and insulin treatment becomes necessary again.
The provided diabetes essay sample is a perfect example of an academic paper that should be written by students. Surprisingly, however, studies in mice have shown that b-cell function is just as dependent as b-cell mass on TCF7L2 see below. Important recent controversies have revolved around whether: An early report  indicated that Type 2 diabetes patient-derived islets and risk T- allele carriers had elevated TCF7L2 mRNA levels compared with healthy islets, consis- tent with the observation that the at-risk allele is associated with a more open chromatin conformation and enhanced promoter activity ; however, the identity of the splice variants was not confirmed, leaving the possibility that the upregulated variants may, in fact, be enriched for dominant negative-acting isoforms, or that the measurements may mask a decrease in expression of the most potent variants .
Consistent with the latter view, subsequent studies  found lower TCF7L2 protein levels in Type 2 diabetes patient-derived islets. Moreover, Osmark et al. By contrast, Prokunina-Olsson et al. Essay UK - http: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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"Conclusion For Diabetes" Essays and Research Papers Conclusion For Diabetes The Coast of Diabetes Audience: Group of classmates General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To provide the audience with information about Diabetes and .
Additional papers on BPA, phthalates, and pesticides have not yet been published, but drafts and other information are available on the workshops's website: Role of environmental chemicals in the development of diabetes and obesity.
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diabetes Essay Communications Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a set of related diseases in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar (specifically, glucose) in the blood. The blood delivers glucose to provide the body with energy to perform all of a person's daily activities. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. Diabetes mellitus is where the body cells cannot use glucose properly for lack of or resistance to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes can lead to .