Skip Nav

A Dictionary of Journalism

Phrases Related to JOURNALISM

❶Special radio receivers are required. The main or central page of a website.

Freelancers for hire

Related Words
Tony Harcup
Also Available In:

Leading Questions — Questions intended to steer an interviewee in a particular direction. Lip Flap — Video of somebody talking, with the audio portion muted. Happens when using video of people being interviewed as B-roll. Miscue — An error in which footage or audio is played before its intended time, resulting in overlapping elements in the broadcast.

It may also use interview sound bites. Often used to convey the mood or atmosphere at a scene or an event. NAT Sound — Natural sound on video that the microphone picks up. Including sound of a rally with video of a rally. News Envelope — A summary segment in which the main headlines are broadcast in brief around a minute or less.

May have local or national sponsorship. Used for transition between voiceovers or soundbites, or when there is no video to talk over. Outcue — The final three or four words of a news package, included in scripts to signal to the anchor and control room staff when the package is about to end so they can cue the next element in the program.

Package sometimes Wrap — A pre-recorded, pre-produced news story, usually by a reporter, with track, sound, B-roll, and possibly a stand-up. POV or Point-of-View Shot — B-roll shot from the perspective of the subject, illustrating what the subject sees or saw at a given moment. Production Element — Any piece of audio which is intended for use within the final mix, i. Promo — Promotional announcement.

In effect, an advertisement for a program a station or channel is carrying. Pronouncer — Phonetic spelling of word in story, placed in copy behind correctly spelled word. Reader — A script read entirely by the anchor on camera, without sound bites or video. Remote — A live shot from the field, where a satellite truck is required to transmit the image.

Rundown — An electronic or paper form created by the line producer of a news broadcast. Gives specific details of every element in a newscast, including the order of stories, video, audio, and graphic elements and timing for each. Audio broadcast from the scene of a breaking news story, or shortly in the wake of recent events. Gives specific details of every element in a newscast, including the order of stories, video, audio and graphic elements and timing for each. Sidebar — A small story, graphic, or chart accompanying a bigger story on the same topic.

Only for newsroom use; not meant for broadcast. Usually an edited portion of a larger statement. Studio in the — A story updating or supplying additional details about an event that has been previously covered.

Still — A still image as opposed to a moving video image. Stills can be used to illustrate a story and can sometimes be displayed over track or interview clips instead of video footage. Tight on — A direction to the camera crew to zoom in on a subject so that they fill the shot e. Time Code — The time signature on a camera or recording device—actual time a story is being shot on a hour basis, i.

In journalism, fairness requires not favouring one viewpoint over another in collecting and presenting news and opinion. Different viewpoints are presented accurately, even those with which the journalist personally disagrees.

A US agency that regulates interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. The five commissioners are appointed by the US President.

A longer article or radio story, usually in greater depth and complexity than a simple news item. Features may grow from a current news event or simply be examining a timeless issue.

Features which are not strongly connected to hard news events are often called soft features. Longer features may be called documentarie. Feed reader programs can combine the contents of multiple web feeds for display on one or more screens.

RSS is one form of feed. An unwanted noise created when the output of an audio speaker feeds back into a microphone in the same system and is amplified as this happens in an increasing loop, resulting in a high-pitched squeal. To send a report from a reporter on location to the newsroom or studio. Segments of video or film footage kept in tape libraries - or on newsroom computer archives - to illustrate either 1 general events such as crowds shopping or aeroplanes taxiing at airports or 2 past events used in current stories.

See also stock footage. Traditionally sheets of paper showing the proposed layout of items such as stories and adverts in a newspaper or magazine as it is sent to the printer. Increasingly, these are laid out on computer screens using special flatplan software. Pictures or vision shown on television while the presenter is talking or interviewing a guest.

Sometimes called out of vision OOV or underlay. Freedom of Information FOI: Laws which require a government body to release information to the public on request or to state why requested information will not be released. A story which is written to report new or more detailed information on a story which has already been published or broadcast.

An online site, also known as a message board, where people can hold discussions. Usually a reporter or editor not formally employed by any media organisation, instead working on projects under contract or paid individual amounts for work accepted for publication or broadcast.

A usually cheaper publication that is circulated free readers, making its revenue from advertising or from grants of gifts.

Television broadcast on public spectrum which is free to viewers. It is usually funded by taxpayers public broadcasting or advertising commercial broadcasting. Occasionally also used to describe normal radio broadcasts which are free to listeners with conventional radio receivers. Compare with pay TV or subscription radio. Also known as geolocation Data attached to a photo, video, or message containing information about the location at which it was created or uploaded. Graphics Interchange Format, a file format for taking digital images and sending them on the Internet.

GIF is considered better for sending images that have solid colours in graphics, text or line art; JPEG is considered better for photographs.

Language which sounds as if it makes sense but is either meaningless or confusing to the listener or reader. An extreme form of jargon. A short piece of recorded sound, usually taken from a longer interview and used in a news item.

An illustration in a newspaper, magazine or web page explaining part of a story in a visual way, e. Often shortened to Gfx, words, diagrams or other illustrations that appear on the television screen. Mainly US, short for a paragraph of text, which may also be known as a par. A system of shorthand used mainly in the US and associated countries. A technician who assists with camera and lighting in TV production.

Mainly US, derogatory term for photographs where people shake grip hands and smile grin at the camera, often at ceremonies to open facilities or receive gifts.

A relatively low cost marketing technique which uses surprise or shock to promote a product or service, especially one which interrupts a consumer to pay special attention. Also used to describe unusual methods which actually do not look like advertising to the consumer. A derogatory term for media which use sensational reporting without concern for the harm it will do individuals. Something printed on paper. Immediate and factual accounts of important events or developments.

Compare with soft news. In broadcasting, a sudden and inflexible ending of material in a bulletin, usually determined by a fixed-length pre-recorded segment or a pre-programmed computer event.

On most social networks, clicking a hashtag will reveal all the public and recently published messages that also contain that hashtag. In broadcasting, headlines are short summaries of a few important stories that will follow in full in the bulletin.

Closing headlines come at the end of a bulletin. A popular but misleading method of counting viewing of websites. Hits counts the number of downloads of every element of a web page, not the page as a whole. A page with 30 text boxes, images, menus and other graphics will count as 30 hits.

Page views are a more reliable measure of web traffic. The main or central page of a website. Other pages on the website will usually link back to the home page.

A now almost wholly abandoned method of printing using metal type generated on a Linotype machine. An advert promoting the publication in which it appears, often put on a page to fill a gap.

Style guides can vary from basic rules on spelling and grammar to complex documents on how words are used and pronounced. The standard computer language for creating web pages and web applications. A news story or feature which focuses on individual people and the effects of issues or events on them. Human interest stories are often used to make ideas more real and concrete in the minds of the viewer, reader or listener. Human interest stories can also cover unusual and interesting aspects of other people's lives which are not particularly significant to society as a whole.

A word or phrase in web text containing the address of material that can be found elsewhere on the page or website or on other websites and which can be accessed by clicking on it or sometimes hovering a pointer over it. Hyperlinks or links typically appear as differently formatted text, often underlined. In online media, the number of times an advertisement is loaded onto a web page, whether or not a viewer clicks on it.

Information printed in a newspaper or magazine showing the publisher details. A written note of the first few words of a piece of pre-recorded of audio report or interview to signal to the presenter or production staff how it will start. A major supplier of news to independent television companies and other television content distributors in Britain. The biggest commercial television network in Britain. In newspapers, a table of content, usually on the front page or page 2.

In broadcasting, a program segment that is a cross between information and an advertisement. Infomercials are often presented in documentary style but are, in fact, paid-for advertisements for products or services. Digital television broadcasts that have added mechanisms to feed information back-and-forth between the viewer and the TV station, such as to download content or to vote on something using the television remote control.

The global network of interconnected computers. The World Wide Web and email are two parts of the Internet. A network of machines, devices and appliances that have some level of computerisation inside them that enables them to interact through the Internet to perform some functions.

A popular household example is a fridge that can re-order food and drink without being told by a human. A method by which radio or television presenters - and sometimes guests - can hear the program output as well as messages from colleagues through an ear piece or headphones. A formal, usually structured conversation between a journalist and a source to get information for a story.

A private computer network within a company or organisation for internal users only. The first paragraph of a news story, usually containing the most newsworthy part of it.

In features and documentaries the intro may just lead the reader or listener into the story. Known as a lead in the US. In broadcasting, a few words or sentences read by the presenter, telling listeners or viewers about the report which immediately follows.

The most common structure for writing a news story, with the main news at the start and the rest of the detail following in decreasing order of importance. Finding, reporting and presenting news which other people try to hide.

It usually takes longer and requires more research that ordinary news reporting. Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over the Internet. Specialised language concerned with a particular subject, culture or profession. It is not usually found in the everyday speech of ordinary readers or listeners and so should be avoided in the general media if possible.

A computer language that adds extra functions to HTML web sites. Short piece of music played on radio to identify a regular feature, program or product being advertised. The communication of current issues and events to an audience in a structured way, usually in relation to a set of generally agreed social principles such as accuracy. Someone who finds and presents information as news to the audiences of newspapers, magazines, radio or television stations or the Internet.

Journalists traditionally work within a set of generally agreed societal principles or within professional codes. Professional journalists are usually trained and receive payment for their work. Also JPG One of several file formats for making and sharing digital images by compressing them into smaller files. A line of type at the bottom of an incomplete newspaper or magazine article which directs the reader to another page where the story is continued.

Electronic versions sent via the Internet are usually called spam. Where each line in a column of text aligns to the same left and right margins. This is achieved by stretching or shrinking the width of letters or spaces between words. Sometimes called fully justified or set full. A way of setting printed type so that adjacent characters appear to overlap, reducing the amount of horizontal space they require.

Important facts or pieces of information which must be included in a news story. Some will go in the intro , others into the body of the story. A word that can be used by a search engine to find all references containing it. Keywords can be used to find words within digital documents, on web pages or on the Internet. To cancel or delete all or part of a story.

See also to spike. A reduced fee paid to a freelance journalist for a story that is not used. Sometimes called a dummy. A sub-editor who specialises in planning the layout of pages.

Also called a 'splash'. An article written by the editor or a specialist giving the opinion of the newspaper on an issue. See also definition 1 of editorial above. A question phrased in such a way as to draw out a specific answer wanted by the questioner. Letters from readers published by a newspaper or magazine, expressing their views on previous content or current issues. Letters to the editor are read out on radio or shown on screen while being read out on television.

An older term for defamation. Traditionally, libel was the written form of defamation. To take a news story, feature or quote from another newspaper or broadcaster and use it in your own report. A special supplement - often attached to advertising or a promotion - which is inserted into a newspaper or magazine and can be lifted out by a reader.

Copying a quote or partial quote from within an article and highlighting it next to the body of the text using special type or formatting. See also pull-out quote. A list of reports, interviews or other material compiled for an upcoming news bulletin or newscast, usually placed in the order in which they will be presented. The process by which hyperlinks on individual websites or the Internet in general point to web pages, servers or other resources that have become unavailable.

See also broken links. A machine used to make type for printing before computer typesetting. See hot metal type. Adjective 1 Being broadcast as it happens. See also on air.

Used by a journalist, they often prompt strong reactions from interviewees but this can obscure useful discussions and prompt accusations of bias. An agreed process by which journalists are taken to a room to see advance copies of a major announcement, such as a government budget, and in which they stay to prepare stories for release as soon as the budget is delivered in parliament or congress.

A record of events. Similar to a shotlist. The small letters of the alphabet, i. Compare with upper case. Also called a periodical. The senior editor involved in the day-to-day production of a newspaper or magazine, usually with overall responsibility for the gathering, writing and sub-editing of news.

A web page or web application that automatically brings together content from more than one source to create a single new service, such as names of local businesses shown in locations on a map.

Media technologies such as radio, television, newspapers and magazines that reach large audiences via widespread or mass communication, usually by broadcasting, physical distribution or on the Internet. Compare with social media. The name of a newspaper in a banner in special, distinctive type at the top of the front page.

Also called press conference or news conference. When reporters are gathered together to question someone in the news, usually taking it in turns to ask questions. Such gatherings are usually organised by an individual or company to deal with all the media in one session or to promote a new product or service.

It may contain written documents, photographs, charts, schedules and other information the organisation wants journalists to focus on.

Also called press officer , a person employed by a company or other organisation to get positive publicity in the media and deal with enquiries from journalists. A million pixels , a measure of the number of pixels in a digital image, the higher the number the clearer and sharper the image. A small or short Internet blog that allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links.

Examples include Twitter and Facebook. Small, focused audio and video programs delivered directly to a specialised audience on a program-by-program basis, often by subscription. Contrast with broadcasting to mass audiences. Mobile journalists who use light and portable reporting and communications tools such as mobile camera phones, PDAs and notebook wireless computers to record, edit and transmit their work in text, audio, pictures and video while in the field, without using an office. Typed at the end of copy to signify that there is more of the story to come, either on another page or later in the process.

Often shortened to "mf" for "more follows immediately" or "mtc" for "more to come later". A suite of internationally agreed standard data formats that allow the recording and transmission of video and audio compressed to use less data. It uses far less data than the other principal digital audio format WAV. A head-and-shoulders photograph of a person facing the camera.

The way of presenting a subject using different types of media, such as video, audio, text and images in combination. In journalism, stories that are told using more than one technology platform, each platform chosen to best tell that part of the story. For example, a radio documentary may put additional information, transcripts etc on a website for listeners to visit and learn more.

A television report may use a social media platform to interact with viewers to enhance the story or gather and share more information. A single digital television or digital radio signal comprising several distinct channels of programming.

A type of caption on screen, typically the name and title of the person speaking. Also called supers because they are superimposed over the image of the person who is speaking or cap gens cg from creation by a caption generator. They can also be called captions.

Also known as wild sound. Transmission of information, entertainment etc to a limited audience often sharing a specific interest or locality. The National Council for Training of Journalists is the official UK industry accreditation board for journalism courses.

Rules of polite behaviour etiquette when using the Internet. A form of citizen journalism which relies heavily on information shared through the Internet to create stories, often without original research by the writer or producer. A question asked in such a way that it does not imply personal opinion or bias. Compare with loaded questions above. Usually defined as media of mass communication that came into being because of computers. Websites are new media, newspapers and even television are said to be old media.

See also digital media. Information which is new, unusually and interesting or significant to the recipient. It is usually about people or related in some way to their lives.

News is produced in a structured way by journalists. A company that sells stories to media organisations. News agencies may produce news stories or features themselves or collect and redistribute them to media outlets. A web application which gathers syndicated web content - such as online newspapers, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs vlogs - in one location for easy viewing.

In broadcasting, a scheduled or unplanned interruption in programming to present a short news bulletin, either previewing an upcoming news program or to give breaking news of an important event. The person in charge of which news events are covered and how news stories are gathered and written by reporters in a newsroom.

In smaller newsrooms, this is often done by a chief reporter. See also chief or staff. Also punctuated as news-in-brief , a collection of short stories or a single story presented in one or two short paragraphs.

In print or on a web page, NIBs may appear in a small box or a specific column at the side or bottom of a page. In broadcasting, they may either be a brief insert into other programming or be presented as a block of short stories within a bulletin. Collectively they may also be known as wraps , round-ups or news belts. A list of stories for coverage in the current edition of a newspaper or forthcoming news bulletin.

It is usually prepared by the news editor. The qualities or criteria that journalists use to assess whether an event, development or opinion is worthy of preparing and presenting as news. Criteria include whether it is new, unusual, interesting or significant and about people. See What is News. British industry body representing regional and local newspaper owners. A cheap, low grade of paper made from recycled paper and wood pulp, used for printing newspapers. Also called an anchor. A specially equipped office where journalists work producing news.

Aspects of an event or development that make it worth communicating in a news story or feature. See also news value above. In a morning newspaper, the most senior journalist left in charge of a newsroom overnight when the editor has left. Where there is only a single camera, noddies are usually shot after the interview ends and then edited into the finished piece to break up long slabs of the interviewee. Information for publication or broadcast given on agreement that you do not identify the source.

Tape editing used to be a linear process of dubbing individual shots from a source tape onto an edit master in sequence. A paragraph telling the essential elements of a story briefly, i. The National Union of Journalists is a British trade union and professional organisation for journalists. Short for outside broadcast.

Radio or television programs broadcast from a location outside the studios, usually live, using an OB van or OB truck. An article summarising the life and achievements of a person recently dead. A basic type of journalism practiced in democracies in which the journalists do not allow their personal biases to affect their work, they take a neutral stance even on difficult matters and give a fair representation of events and issues.

Compare with advocacy journalism. British Broadcasting industry regulator. A news story which was not expected or scheduled in the diary. See also off the record. Short for off microphone. Type 2 is also called non-attributable information. Journalists should check exactly which of these conditions the source expects. See also background above. A microphone which picks up sound from all directions. Compare with unidirectional and bidirectional microphones. A program being currently broadcast to viewers or listeners.

A studio which is 'on air' is said to be 'live'. A news story scheduled in the newsroom diary for coverage. Reporting and writing news specifically for use on the Internet. Article that is written in case it is needed i. Information given by a source who has agreed to be identified in the story. Compare with off the record and non-attributable above.

Chiefly US, an opinionated story written by a prominent journalist. The page in a newspaper opposite the editorial page , containing opinion columns, sometimes readers letters and other items expressing opinions.

Compare with closed question above. A system of innovators working together — often remotely over the Internet - to create digital products or services. The open source material they produce is also usually free for people to use, though it is not necessarily copyright -free. Compare with fact above.

A single first line of a paragraph left incomplete at the bottom of a column of text, the rest of the paragraph appearing at the top of the next column of text. Normally avoided in typesetting. See also widow below. Also called an outcue. When actual reports are produced or live interviews are arranged, they are added to the line-up for the upcoming bulletin or newscast.

In broadcasting, recorded material left out of the program that is finally broadcast. Humorous out-takes are often called flubs or bloopers.

To dub sound on top of another sound, so the original sound can still be heard in the background. Usually used to put voice over background or wild sound or to put a translation in one language over the original words spoken in another language. A program or report which is too long for its allotted time slot. See also run to time. When individual journalists competing for coverage of an event or issue act together, like a pack of dogs chasing the same quarry. A completed television news story pre-prepared for a news bulletin and ready for transmission.

A way of measuring Internet traffic on a site by the number of individual web pages visited. Clicking on three separate pages on a web site counts as three page views.

Compare with hits , which counts the number of individual elements e. Slowly moving a television camera left or right in an arc parallel to the ground. See also reported speech. A quote of which only part of the sentence is used. If words are omitted from within the quote used, their absence is signified by ellipsis three dots , e. He said there was 'every chance An older method of printing stories and pasting them onto a page ready to be printed, before computerised desktop design.

A service in which a person pays only for the individual program or movie they wish to watch. It is usually delivered to the home by cable television or Internet download. A television service which viewers pay to receive, usually by subscription or pay-per-view. Restricting access to content on a website to people who have paid a subscription.

Paywalls are used by online newspapers, magazines and some TV and radio networks to replace the cover price lost from hard copy editions and to meet a decline in advertising. A small hand-held computer combining a mobile phone, organiser and software to connect to the Internet.

A common standardised file format for documents to be reproduced exactly as they appeared when created. A network where two or more computers are connected to share resources without going through a separate server computer. Permalinks are often rendered simply, to be easy for people to type and remember. A type of radio program which invites listeners to telephone with information or comments for broadcast.

A popular computer program used to edit and organise photographs. A unit of measurement for type, approximately 4. It is divided into 12 points. Video provided by news agencies that media organisations, pay to use. A trial episode of a proposed television series, to see whether there is audience demand for a full series. A system of shorthand mainly used in Britain and associated countries. It is regarded as able to achieve faster speeds than systems such as Teeline but is more complex to learn.

A pixel is the smallest individual element that can be programmed when creating a digital image. The resolution or quality of a digital screen image is determined by how many pixels there are in a specified area, often expressed as horizontal and vertical dimensions. Originally used to distinguish between different computer systems, platforms generally include audio radio, podcasts etc , video television, film, videostreaming , text usually on websites, electronic billboards or public display screens , mobile devices such as smart phones, GPS navigators etc.

A graphics file format designed for transferring images via the Internet with minimal loss of quality through compression. The smallest unit of measuring type fonts and other items on a printed page.

There are 12 points in a pica. See also desktop publishing point DTP. In the context of search, algorithms are used to provide the most relevant results first based on those instructions. AM Mark - the symbol used for denoting the end of a feature story in a periodical. Android — Usually used in the context of Android phone, Android is a free and open source operating system developed by Google that powers a variety of mobile phones from different manufacturers and carriers.

It is a rival of the iPhone platform. In contrast to Apple's tightly controlled architecture and App Store, Android allows users to install apps from the Android Market and from other channels, such as directly from a developer's website — which allows for X-rated content, for example.

Expect to see competitors to the iPad running a version of Android. AP - the abbreviation for the Associated Press. App — Short for application, a program that runs inside another service. Many mobile phones allow apps to be downloaded, leading to a burgeoning economy for modestly priced software. Can also refer to a program or tool that can be used within a website.

Apps generally are built using software toolkits provided by the underlying service, whether it is iPhone or Facebook. Astroturfing - A term used to describe fake grassroots support on websites and in blog comments. A method most usually employed by the public relations and advertising industry and political groups. Atom — A syndication format for machine readable web feeds that is usually accessible via a URL.

Attribute - to quote the original source of material, whether it be a quote of copyrighted work. Audit - An independent assessment of the validity of statistics used in adverts, newspapers etc. The AOP represents the interests of publishing companies. Average issue readership - Number of people who have read the newspaper or magazine in the period that it was issued, also known as AIR.

B2B - Business to business; describes a business whose primary customers are other businesses. B2C - Business to customer; describes a business whose primary customers are individuals. Background - Information given to a reporter to explain more about the situation and details of a story. Sometimes shortened to BG.

Bandwidth - The amount of data that can be transferred through an internet connection. Bang out - A composing room ritual in which an employee leaving the premises for the last time is commemorated by the pounding of pica poles against metal surfaces in a commemorative clamor. Banner ad - Web advert, normally found at the top of a page. Typically around by 60 pixels in size. Sometimes called a web banner. Beta - Used in software publishing, 'beta' is the name given to a pre-release version of a software product.

Blawg - Weblog dealing with aspects of law. Bliki - Combination of a blog and a wiki ; a blog that can be edited by readers or an approved group of users.

Blog - An online commentary or diary often written by individuals about hobbies or areas of specialist interest. Blogs commonly allow comments below entries and are published in reverse chronological order. Also known as a weblog. Blogger - A person who writes a blog. Blurb - Brief introduction to the writer, usually following the headline.

Breaking news - Unanticipated events developing during the publication cycle, requiring updates and occasionally wholesale revision of pages. Breaking news is conventionally greeted by profane expressions on the news desk, city desk, or copy desk. Browser - A piece of software that allows users to view internet pages. Popular browsers include Firefox , Internet Explorer and Safari.

Bulldog - An early edition. The Baltimore Sun continues to produce a bulldog edition of the Sunday paper that appears Saturday morning. Buried lede - The central element of an article mistakenly appearing deep in the text. It must be disinterred courtesy of John E McIntyre. Burn off - To dispose of articles that have previously been rejected for the front page or section front by running them on a day of low circulation.

Look at your Monday paper. Button - A small web advertisement, usually around by 90 pixels in size and commonly found in the right or left hand columns of a website. Byline - A journalist's name at the beginning of a story. Cable television - TV delivered into the home through an underground cable. Campaign - The various stages of an advertising project from beginning to end. Caption - Text printed below a picture used to describe it and who took it. Sometimes called a cutline. Cascading stylesheets CSS - Technique used for designing web pages.

One file that defines the style for a whole site. Chat rooms - An interactive part of a website where visitors can write messages to each other people in real time. Also known as forums and message boards. Churnalism - Bad journalism; journalists that churn out rewrites of press releases. Centre of visual interest CVI - The prominent item on a page usually a headline, picture or graphic.

Circulation - Number of copies sold by newspapers or magazines. Citizen journalism - Term used to describe the reporting of news events by members of the public most commonly on blogs and social networking websites. Other terms include participatory journalism and networked journalism though it should not be confused with civic journalism, which is practiced by professional journalists.

Civic media — An umbrella term describing media technologies that create a strong sense of engagement among residents through news and information. Classified advertising - Advertising placed by individuals in newspapers. Sometimes called small ads. Clickthrough - When a reader clicks on an advert and is redirected to a new page. Advertisers sometimes buy adverts based on a rate per click called a Click-through rate or CTR.

Client side — Referring to network software where work takes place on the user's computer, the client, rather than at the central computer, known as the server. Advantages of doing so include speed and bandwidth. An example is Javascript, a programming language that allows developers to build interactivity into websites. The work is done within the browser, rather than at the hosting website. Cloud computing — An increasingly popular computing model in which information and software are provided on demand from over the Internet rather than staying on local computers.

Cloud computing is appealing because companies can reduce the amount they spend on their own computer servers and software but can also quickly and easily expand as the company grows. Examples of cloud computing applications include Google Docs and Yahoo Mail.

Amazon offers two cloud computing services: EC2, which many start-ups now use as a cheap way to launch their products, and S3, an online storage system many companies use for cheap storage. CMS Content Management System — Software designed to organise large amounts of dynamic material for a website, usually consisting of at least templates and a database. It is generally synonymous with online publishing system. The material can include documents, photos or videos. While the first generation of content management systems were custom and proprietary, in recent years there has been a surge in free open-source systems such as Drupal, WordPress and Joomla.

Content management systems are sometimes built custom from scratch with frameworks such as Ruby on Rails or Django. Increasingly supplanted by electronic transmission of pages directly to a printing plant, where the pages emerge as metal plates to go on the printing press. Column - A regular feature often on a specific topic, written by the same person who is known as a columnist. Composing room - The place in which printers, now vanished, once assembled pages in hot type or cold type.

Contempt of court - The criminal offence of ignoring court rules. Convergence - The term used to describe multimedia newsrooms producing news for different publishing platforms.

Cookie - Small text file that is downloaded to your computer when you visit a site. The next time you visit, the site can use the file to remember details such as your login information. Copy approval - A source or interviewer asking to see the text of an article prior to publication. Copywriting - Creating the text for an advertisement. CPA Cost Per Action — A pricing model in which the advertiser is charged for an ad based on how many users take a specific, pre-defined action—such as buying a product from an online store—based on viewing an ad.

However, it's not commonly used since it's extremely difficult to measure: Also sometimes referred to as Cost Per Acquisition.

CPM - cost per thousand impressions. This is the cost an advertiser pays for 1, page views. CQ - An indication that the name or term so noted has been checked and verified. Creative Commons — A flexible set of copyright licenses that allow content creators to specify which rights they reserve and which they waive regarding their work that is supposed to codify collaborative spirit of the Internet.

There are six main Creative Commons licenses based on four conditions that creators can choose to apply: The least restrictive of the licenses is Attribution, which grants anyone, from an individual to a large company, the right to distribute, display, or otherwise make use of the work so long as the creator is credited.

First released in December by the nonprofit Creative Commons organization, which was inspired by the open source GNU GPL license, the licenses are now used on an estimated million works worldwide. Crosshead - A few words used to break up large amounts of text, normally taken from the main text. Typically used in interviews. CSS Cascading Style Sheets — Instructions used to describe the look and formatting for documents, usually HTML , so that the presentation is separate from the actual content of the document itself.

That look and feel is controlled by the CSS. CSV is popular precisely because it can be easily read by many different applications, including spreadsheets, word processors, programming text editors and web browsers. Thus it is a common way for people, including governments, to make their data available. Each row of data is represented by a line of text. Many applications support the use of alternative column delimiters the pipe character, , is popular.

Cuttings - A journalist's collection of published print work. Also known as clips and sometimes presented as a portfolio. Cuttings job - An article which has been put together using research culled from a number of other articles or news items. Cyber-journalist - A journalist that works on the internet. Data visualization — A growing area of content creation in which information is represented graphically and often interactively.

This can be used for subjects as diverse as an analysis of a speech by the prime minister and the popularity of baby names over time. While it has deep roots in academia, data visualization has begun to emerge on content sites as a way to handle the masses of data that are being made public, often by government.

Dateline - A line at the beginning of a story stating the date and the location. Deadline - The time at which an editor requests a journalists to finish an assignment. Death-knock - Calling at the house of a bereaved relative or friend when reporting on the death. Also known as door-stepping. Deck - Part of the headline which summarises the story. Also known as deck copy or bank. Defamation - Information that is written by one person which damages another person's reputation.

Allows exciting things to happen when you move your mouse over words. Digg - A community-powered internet link recommendation system.

Furl offers a similar service. Direct quote - The exact reproduction of a verbatim quote in quotemarks and correctly attributed. Digital television - TV transmitted in binary format, producing good picture quality. Direct marketing - Sending advertising material directly to potential customers either by post, fax, email or information by telephone.

Django — A web framework that is popular among news and information sites, in part due to its origin at Lawrence Journal-World in Kansas. It is written in Python, a sophisticated dynamic language.

Major projects built in Django include Disqus, Everyblock. News applications teams, including those at the Chicago Tribune and Los Angeles Times, use the framework to present large data sets online in easily accessible ways. Document-oriented database — An increasingly popular type of database. In contrast to relational databases, which rigidly require information to be stored in pre-defined tables, document-oriented databases are more free-flowing and flexible.

This is important when you don't know what is going to be thrown at you. Document-oriented databases retrieve information more quickly, but store it less efficiently. The same document-oriented database might let you store the information for an article headline, byline, data, content, miscellaneous or for a photo file, photographer, date, cutline.

Dowdification - Deliberate omission of a term or terms to change the meaning of a quote. Refers to journalist Maureen Dowd. Download - Copying a file from a website to your own computer. Draft - The first version of an article before editing and submission to the editor. Dropdown menus - Name given to website menus that allow users to select from a list of options that drop down in a vertical menu.

Drupal — A popular content management system known for a vibrant open-source community that creates diverse and robust extensions. Drupal is very powerful, but it is somewhat difficult to use for simple tasks when compared to WordPress.

Drupal provides options to create a static website, a multi-user blog, an Internet forum or a community website for user-generated content. EC2 — A computing power rental system by Amazon that has become popular among technology companies because it is much cheaper than maintaining your own computer servers.

Users can host their applications on EC2 and pay depending on usage. EC2 is an example of cloud computing. Editor - Someone who prepares material for print or broadcast. Embed — A term meaning to place a specific piece of content from one web page inside of another one.

This is a common way for video content to be spread around the Internet and is increasingly being used for interactive components.

Encryption - TV signals encoded so only paying subscribers can watch. Endnote - Text written at the end of an article stating the authors credentials. Exclusivity - When an advert appears exclusively on a page, rather than being in rotation with other ads. Ezine - Specialised online magazines. Fisk - Detailed word-by-word analysis and critique of an article. Refers to journalist Robert Fisk. Flash - A program used to display design-heavy, animated content.

Flash - 1 Short news story on a new event. The language used, ActionScript, is owned by Adobe; this contrasts with many other popular programming languages that are open source.

Creators must use Adobe's Creative Suite products and web surfers must install a Flash plug-in for their browser. Many claim that Flash players are unstable and inefficient, slowing down web pages and crashing operating systems. Apple has not allowed Adobe to create a Flash player for the iPhone operating system, which has created a feud between the two companies.

HTML5 is emerging as an open alternative to Flash. Despite a relatively modest user base at the beginning, Foursquare quickly attracted a lot of attention for its potential for marketing and customer brand loyalty. Freelancer - Someone that works alone, usually on a contract-to-contract basis. Freesheet - A publication that is free to consumers and generates its revenue from advertising.

Free-to-air - TV service received without having to decode or pay. A method of moving files, usually used to transfer files from your computer to a web server. FYI - An abbreviation meaning for your information. Geotag — A piece of information that goes with content and contains geographically based information. Commonly used on photo sites such as Flickr or in conjunction with user-generated content, to show where a photo, video or article came from.

There has been some discussion of its increasing relevance with geographically connected social networking sites, such as Foursquare. Twitter has implemented geotagging, and Facebook has announced plans to do so. GIF - A type of picture file, often used for images that include text. Goat-choker - An article of inordinate and suffocating length, produced to gratify the vanity of the author and the aspirations of the publication. Grip - A person that looks after the equipment required to make a TV camera move.

Grip-and-grin - A photograph of no inherent interest in which a notable and an obscure person shake hands at an occasion of supposed significance.

Geotagging - Adding metadata to an image, video, RSS feed, web page etc, which identifies the geographical location relating to the content. Hits - Number of downloads of every element of a web page, rather than the page as a whole.


Main Topics

Privacy Policy

crony journalism Reporting that ignores or treats lightly negative news about friends of a reporter. crop To cut or mask the unwanted portions, usually of a Broadcasting Terms close-up Shot of the face of the subject that dominated .

Privacy FAQs

This accessible and authoritative A–Z covers the wide range of terms likely to be encountered by students of journalism. It offers a broad, accessible point of reference on an ever-topical and constantly changing field that affects everyone's knowledge and perception of the world.

About Our Ads

Citizen journalism - Term used to describe the reporting of news events by members of the public most commonly on blogs and social networking websites. Other terms include participatory journalism and networked journalism though it should not be confused with civic journalism, which is practiced by professional journalists. Journalism, like any profession, has its own language and specialist words which practitioners need to know. The following glossary contains more than definitions of terms about journalism and the media - including new media - making it probably the biggest, most extensive journalism and media glossary available free online.

Cookie Info

Start studying Journalism Glossary. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The amount of technical jargon in the world of journalism—often even for very simple concepts—is notorious, and even if you’ve spent a few years at broadcast journalism school there will still be terms that’ll inevitably mystify you when starting your career.