Self-sacrifice in this sense is about more than simply repressing physical pleasure. Indeed, self-sacrifice as the basis of love rather than fear can bring a sense of pleasure. Seeing the world only in terms of fear, pleasure and its excess is somewhat, as said above, narrow. Furthermore I do not believe that the complexity of the human psyche can be reduced to a few simple regulatory paradigms. Pleasure is therefore much more complex and difficult to define than the above philosophers…… [Read More].
Armand Nicholi Freud and God. Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months. These men are the Oxford don, C.
Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity.
Freud never read a word that C. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…… [Read More]. Cognitive Psychology Comparison of Freud. However, just like Maslow, Rogers is just as interested in describing the healthy person. Positive regard is self-esteem, self-worth, and a positive self-image which are achieved through experiencing the positive regard that others show us over our years of growing up; without this, we feel small and helpless.
Under Roger's theory, this "small" and "helplessness" is exactly what John is feeling, most likely as a result of the manner in which he was treated growing up. He is feeling anxious and lacks self-discipline because he does not like himself personally, as he feels that he does not meet up to the standards set for him by others.
Under Roger's theory, John's actions demonstrate that he does not have a positive image of himself, a result of low self-esteem inflicted on him over the years of receiving negative feedback while he was growing up. Freud's theory is also a clinical theory,…… [Read More]. Beyond the Contributions of Sigmund.
Traveling worldwide, Rogers participated in negotiating sessions involving disputes between Protestants and Catholics, religious, racial, and ethnic differences in South Africa, racial disputes in the United States, and consumers and health care professionals in several jurisdictions.
He was widely recognized as being successful at resolving serious differences in most of these difference scenarios. While Rogers was an extroverted, personable individual, Carl Jung was a highly introverted individual who preferred a solitary life.
By his own admission, Jung was happiest when he was left alone with his thoughts Wehr, Jung academic background was founded in the field of medicine. While attending medical school, Jung developed an interest in spirituality and it was this interest that eventually led to his becoming interested in psychiatry as a specialty. As part of his graduation…… [Read More].
Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions.
This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.
Sigmund Freud and his contributions He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between and He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical.
Belief Doubt and the Modern Mind. From the philosophical discourses proposed by Sigmund Freud, Bertrand Russell, and Friedrich Nietzsche, it becomes evident that there no longer exists subsistence to religious idols and personalities, which had been the prevalent ideology and philosophy among societies in human history's early history until the 18th century.
In the texts that follow, this paper discusses and analyzes the philosophies of the three philosophers cited earlier. A philosophy of life" by Sigmund Freud, this paper argues that the philosophers'…… [Read More]. Plato vs Freud on Eros and Sexuality. Freud on eros and sexuality Plato's concept of love mandates two rectifications.
Both of these rectifications are necessary in order for us to appreciate the relevance of Plato's theory of love to contemporary problems.
The first depiction comports with the non-sexual aspect of the loving relationship, because Plato's theory of love indeed includes sex. The second depiction, or rectification, is related inextricably to the heterosexual aspect of the loving relationship. Without a doubt, Plato considers love between people solely as a homosexual phenomenon, but his explication of sex comprises both heterosexual and homosexual relationships.
The sociological setting of Platonism is all one needs to understand it: In Fifth Century Athens, apart from some outstanding exceptions, like Pericles' legendary love for Aspasia, men only married for reproductive needs and ends, yet reserved the term 'love' and the passionate activity of sexual love only for homosexual relationships. However, nothing in…… [Read More].
Freud and Society Sigmund Freud has had a profound influence on our understanding of contemporary society. It can be argued that Freud's theories and insights have also had a direct effect on shaping modern society itself and determining the way we see ourselves. Freud's theories are also the object of heated debate and criticism and his views of the dynamics of the individual in society are not always agreed upon. While it is undeniable that, to large extent, "Our notions of identity, memory, childhood, sexuality and, most generally, of meaning have been shaped in relation to, and often in opposition to, Freud's work" Roth.
In terms of society and sociological analysis the most significant aspect of the idea of the unconscious is the theory of…… [Read More]. Freud in Lolita The narrator of Vladimir Nabakov's novel Lolita, Professor Humbert, begins his story by recounting his childhood and the early stages of his sexual life, and particularly his experiences with his first love or at least, his first obsession , a young girl named Annabel Leigh.
Humbert recalls their sexual mis adventures together in some detail, and his description of this childhood romance closely echoes Sigmund Freud's formulation of the "infantile sexuality" in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. However, Humbert and Annabel are thwarted each time they attempt a coupling, and Annabel dies soon afterwards.
This creates a rift in the young Humbert such that he is unable to appreciate girls or women until he meets Lolita, further echoing another of Freud's theories, this time of the oppositional instincts elucidated in The Ego and the Id. By analyzing Humbert's experiences with Annabel and the effects of her…… [Read More].
Comparing Two Theories of Human Behavior Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud , and linguistic anthropologist Michel Foucault , came from two different European cities Freud from Vienna; Foucault from Paris lived at different times, and developed entirely different theories of human behavior.
Freud believed human drives and impulses originate from the unconscious; and external social repression of unconscious impulses early messages about "right" and "wrong" from parents, teachers, other authority figures, and from society give way to internal formation of the id unconscious desire ; the ego a person's sense of who he or she is ; and the superego an internalized parent constantly reminding the individual, based on early socialization, of what is the "right" thing to do, instead of the "wrong" thing, in terms of society's expectations of the individual.
Freud also believed, in…… [Read More]. Berger's "Sacred Canopy," and Freud's "The Future of an illusion" are both secular theories of religion.
Berger's theory is based on a sociological understanding of human nature, while Freud's analysis is based largely upon his psychoanalytical theories. Both theories feel that the human fear of the terror of nature and death are at the root of the phenomenon of religion. In "The Sacred canopy: His theory of religion is based on the premise that "every human society is an enterprise of world-building" Berger. As such, Berger explains that our perceived world is constantly being created through what he refers to as a dialectical process.
This process has three key aspects: In externalization, our thoughts become translated into the products we make and the actions that we take. When the products…… [Read More]. Using Psychology at Work. Freud was one of the early pioneers of psychoanalytic theory, which is still prevalent today and is associated with a psychodynamic perspective and its presence in contemporary organizations. There is a distinctive way in which psychoanalytic theory -- and many of the concepts advanced by Freud -- can influence functional cultural identity.
By extension, there are a number of different ways cultural identity can pertain to a leader's influence on the perception of cultural identity and on organizational and individual performance. Perhaps the core notion of psychoanalytic theory is that a person's past plays a substantial role in his or her present.
The clinician utilizing this theory attempts to identify key elements in a person's past that are contributing to myriad manifestations in his or her present life, and change them…… [Read More]. Employees Training and Development Plan. Freud and Erikson Theory Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character.
After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions.
Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…… [Read More]. Social Psychology and the Perspectives. Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…… [Read More]. Sexuality can be discussed and analyzed through concepts made in other works of the author. These essays revolve around the idea of sexual perversions and why they develop in the first place. In the second essay, Freud talks about the various psychosocial stages of development. The third essay revolves around the genital stage and how a person is more included to sexuality when he or she begins puberty.
Freud has stated that normal sexual activity between a man and a woman and is only limited to sexual intercourse. Anything apart from that is considered a perversion or a deviation from normal human sexual activity. Conclusion derived from this the theory of sexuality and other Freudian concepts is that: Abnormal sexual perversions develop in a person due to psychosocial conflict in life and these perversions are a threat to stability of civilization. Freud insists on the notion that sexuality is a…… [Read More].
Timeline Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today.
Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…… [Read More]. Id Ego and Superego Id. The ego does not have any concept of right or wrong but it understands that an action is good when it achieves the desired end of satisfying the need without harming the id or itself.
The superego The superego is the last component of personality to develop in a person. Sigmund Freud argues that the superego begins to appear in a person at the age of five years during the phallic stage of psychosocial development. It is the personality aspect that holds all of the internalized moral ideals and standards that a person acquires from both their parents and the society. It provides the person with the sense of right and wrong and provides guidelines upon which a person can make judgment.
He argues that the superego has two parts. The first is the ego ideal which includes the standards and rules for good behavior. The ideal is the picture…… [Read More]. Social Psychology and the Beliefs. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…… [Read More]. Alfred Adler Was One of the First. Alfred Adler was one of the first supporters of Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the eralyth Century, although the two psychiatrists had a particularly harsh falling out in and never reconciled.
Adler's basic theories were so distinctive from Freud's that any attempt to combine them would have been impossible, given that he denied the existence of the id, ego and superego. In general, Adler minimized the role of genetics, sexuality and unconscious drives in human personality formation is favor of conscious goal-setting that overcame the childhood sense of dependence, powerlessness and inferiority and created a mature, competent and self-realized adult.
Moreover, humans were social creatures whose purpose in life was not merely to accumulate wealth, power and status, but to improve the condition of society and the world as best they could. Alderian psychology was always a relatively small school compared to the Freudians and behaviorists,…… [Read More]. Freudian Perspective of Human Psychology.
More specifically, children whose transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long- lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled.
Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that corresponds to the precise stage of development i. Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships McWilliams, Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…… [Read More].
Id Ego and Super-Ego of. The ego also understands that submitting to the id can lead to self-destructive behavior. The ego is also subject to "defense mechanisms" that will help it mediate between the id and the super-ego.
One defense mechanism present in Bundy's behavior is displacement. Displacement occurs when one directs threatening impulses on a less threatening target. Reports indicate that Bundy directed his attacks on middle-class, white females, between the ages of 15 and 25, many of who were college students.
His victims are speculated to have resembled his first girlfriend, "Stephanie Brooks. Bundy had confessed that his first attempted kidnapping occurred in , an indication that the termination of his relationship with "Brooks" may have been the trigger on his serial killing spree. The super-ego is closely associated with the individual's conscience and…… [Read More].
Psychoanalytical Theory Psychoanalytic theory started off with the work of Sigmund Freud. Throughout his clinical work with people suffering from mental illness, Freud came to believe that childhood experiences and unaware desires contributed to a person's behavior.
Based on his observations, he developed a theory that described development in terms of a series of psychosexual stages. According to Freud, disagreements that take place during each of these stages can have a lasting influence on one's character and actions Cherry, Psychoanalytic theory was an extremely influential force throughout the first half of the twentieth century.
Those enthused and influenced by Freud have gone on to expand upon Freud's ideas and develop theories of their own. Of these neo-Freudians, Erik Erikson's ideas have become possibly the best known.
Erikson's eight-stage theory of psychosocial development describes growth and change all through the lifetime, centering on social dealings and disagreements that take place…… [Read More]. Defense Mechanisms and Dream Interpretation. In fact, it is the ego that is responsible for creating and maintaining defense mechanisms, to defend itself from perceived attacks or to maintain a perceived equilibrium.
Typically, people remain unaware that they are using defense mechanisms to react to discomfort. Psychotherapy is in part designed to help a person become aware of their defense mechanisms and to learn how to cope better with stress and anxiety.
Defense mechanisms might have originally been designed by the ego as ways to protect itself, but they can have the reverse effect of causing harm because they can evolve into problems like phobias or behavioral disorders.
Almost everyone uses defense mechanisms. One common one is denial. Denial is a defense mechanism that protects the ego from facing…… [Read More]. The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality. Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described.
In today's world, Jungian types with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging are used much more often than Freudian models. Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality.
Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency. Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…… [Read More].
Post World War I Era. Post World War I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset The outbreak of World War I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs. The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.
When the Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud sat down to write an article on the war in early , it was this sense of disillusionment, of a loss of faith in progress, that was uppermost in his mind. The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…… [Read More]. Einstein, Freud and the Search for Hidden Universes," Richard Panek argues that both Einstein and Freud cut across the barriers of science in their time and, through scrupulous observation not only did they produce a revolution in their respective fields of research but, most importantly, they prompted a "revolution in thought" by using as instruments of research not so much mathematical formulas, but more, the tool of imagination which conjures a new, different world for the XX st century.
The notion of the "invisible century" expresses just that. It is not necessary an era of invisible technologies, but one in which questions are answered by triggering flows of speculations based on information or facts which cannot be physically proven yet there is no doubt about their validity. The term "invisible century" points to a historical environment in which one can answer questions such as "what are dreams," "what…… [Read More]. Gestalt Theory According to Koffka.
An introduction to Gestalt-theories" , an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano? The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: It is the seeing, the act that is mental However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study.
Clearly, however, Freud also recognized how Sophocles's story, at least in a literal sense if not a figurative or psychological one, paralleled his particular new theory of early childhood development, that at the four-year-old stage, a child "falls in love" with the opposite sex parent and wishes, then, to kill the same-sex parent in order to destroy a rival.
Freud made the name "Oedipus" far better known than it would otherwise have been. Without Sophocles's play, of course, there would be no term like "Oedipus Complex," to describe today's best-known theoretical stage of early childhood development.
However, Freud's theory is also very far from the story of Oedipus and his unfortunate fate, as told by Sophocles. Therefore, to think of King Oedipus only in…… [Read More]. Therapies and Influences in the.
Beysteher This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. This is because Freud himself was: With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future.
As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…… [Read More]. War of the Worlds by. By relating to how individuals were accustomed to using violence in order to put across their thinking ever since the beginning of time, Freud wanted Einstein and the whole world to understand that people were predisposed to using violence in spite of the fact that they lobbied with regard to how violence is wrong.
Not only did Freud believe that people were prone to violence because of their barbaric nature, as he also believed that "killing an enemy satisfied an instinctual inclination" Freud. It is practically as if Freud considered that people were even capable to kill someone as long as they believed that they would put an end to a serious threat by doing so. Question 3 "The War of the Worlds" is meant to stand as an allegory for imperialism, taking into account that it describes aliens in a totalitarian way and emphasizes their ultimate defeat as their…… [Read More].
Psychology Theories of Personality Focus on Inner. Psychology Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches.
The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology. Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality.
Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope. However, it is still worth understanding the…… [Read More]. Brucke believed in reductionism: Freud was very successful with his research, especially neurophysiology, and invented a special cell staining technique.
While he was successful with what he had accomplished, there were limited available positions available and Brucke helped him receive a grant to enable his to study with the great psychiatrist in Charcot in Paris and then late his rival Bernheim in Nancy. Both studied the use of hypnosis with hysterics. After spending a short time as a resident in neurology in Berlin, he returned home to his fiancee, Martha Bernays, and set up a small practice in neuropsychiatry with the help of Joseph Breuer.
He drew a number of very bright supporters who became the core of the psychoanalytic movement. September 23,, Freud died of cancer of the mouth and jaw that he had suffered from the last 20 years of his life.
Sigmund Freud had numerous theories over the course of his career; the ones that I will be discussing are only a few. Freud did not create the idea of the conscious versus the conscious mind, however he was responsible for making it popular. The conscious mind in what you are aware of at any particular moment, your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies and feelings. The largest part, however, being the un-conscious. The unconscious includes things that are not easily available to awareness, including out drives or instincts and things that we cannot bear to look at, such as memories and emotions associated with trauma.
The id, the ego and the superego are another well-known theory that plays off of the conscious and un-conscious mind. Freudian psychology begins with a world full of objects. Among them is a very special object, the organism. An extremely important part of the organism is the nervous system. The id, or the nervous system, translates the needs of the organism into motivational forces, or otherwise called the primary process.
An example, a screaming newborn does not realize that it needs food; it only understands that it needs something now. This is called the secondary process. The ego then struggles to keep the id, or the organism, happy. The ego keeps record of the obstacles, aids, rewards and punishments, and from there forms the superego.
This theory is usually not complete until the age of seven, if ever. There are two aspects of the superego: The conscious is an internalization of punishments and warnings. The ego ideal derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child. The conscious and the superego communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride, shame, and guilt.
The id, ego and superego lead to the fact that, as if acquired, that a new set of needs and wishes are of social, not biological, at this time. Anxiety sits at the center of powerful forces: When conflicting demands are made upon the ego, the feeling is called anxiety.
It serves as a signal to the ego that its survival as a whole is in jeopardy. There are three different types of anxiety: Realistic anxiety is considered fear. Moral anxiety is a feeling that comes from the outer world, although could be considered shame, guilt and the fear of punishment. Neurotic anxiety is the fear of being overwhelmed by the impulses of the id.
This is the anxiety that intrigued Freud the most. The Oedipal crisis is named after the ancient Greek story of King Oedipus, who inadvertently killed his father and married his mother.
The theory works in this manner: We want her affection, her caresses and her in a broadly sexual way. Dad is the enemy. At this point in his life, the by had recognized that that he differs from girls as there is a difference in hair length and clothing style. From his perspective there is one major difference, he has a penis and girls do not.
He attempts to be more like him, or more like a man.
Free Freud papers, essays, and research papers. Weakness in Sigmound Freud’s Theories - This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term.
Freud's book covered three main areas: sexual perversions; childhood sexuality; and puberty. The Sexual Aberrations. Freud began his first essay, on "The Sexual Aberrations", by distinguishing between the sexual object and the sexual aim — noting that deviations from the norm could occur with respect to both.
Freud was excellent at research and was an excellent observer of human conditions. Freud is a name that you can find regarding psychology today and will be a part of psychology in the future. Sigmund Freud likes to identify the theory of the mind with an image of an iceberg. Freud sees that the unconscious, id part is the bottom part of the iceberg, below the sea hidden away and we are not always aware of it however, it is still there.
- Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis The aim of this essay is to clarify the basic principles of Freud’s theories and to raise the main issues. It is important to be clear about the meanings of certain terms that you may come across and throughout the handout you will find footnotes clarifying certain terms. Sigmund Freud * Born: May 06, in Freiberg, Germany * Died: September 23, in London, England * Nationality: Austrian * Occupation: Psychoanalyst - (May 6) Sigismund Freud was born - Freud began studying medicine at the University of Vienna.